1. China’s On-Demand Organ Transplant Industry

China, the most populated nation on earth, has become home to a booming organ transplantation industry. According to conservative estimates by experts both inside and outside China, there are at least one million patients waiting for liver transplants,1 at least one million waiting for kidney transplants,2 more than four million leukemia patients waiting for bone marrow transplants, and four million needing corneal transplants.3

China began to conduct research and clinical experiments in human organ transplantation in the 1960s. It was not until 2000 that the industry in China entered a period of tremendous growth. The government has incorporated organ transplantation into its national strategy and invested heavily in research, development, and personnel training in transplantation technology. New techniques for transplantation and postoperative care have emerged and proliferated. Liver and kidney transplants have become routine surgery in clinical practice.

Before 1999, there were 150 transplant institutions in Mainland China.4 In 2007, more than 1,000 hospitals applied for permits from the Ministry of Health to continue performing transplants.5 6 The surge in transplants, while mostly absorbed by the domestic population was accompanied by a corresponding boom in transplant tourism from other countries, making China a global center for those in need of new vital organs.

In this chapter:

  1. Fast Growth of China’s Transplant Industry Since 2000
  2. On-Demand Transplants
  3. Volume Indicators


"“Rainbow Club” for liver transplant recipients was established in the Armed Police General Hospital Source: Armed Police General Hospital dated: 2005-09-05"
Original: http://www.transplantation.org.cn/WuJingZongYiYuanKuaiXun/2005-09/217.htm
Archived: https://web.archive.org/web/20160227031623/http://www.transplantation.org.cn/WuJingZongYiYuanKuaiXun/2005-09/217.htm
肝移植受者“彩虹俱乐部” 在武警总医院成立 日期:2005-09-05 来源:武警总医院
"Solution to the gap between the supply and demand of human organs Source: news.163.com"
Original: http://news.163.com/special/reviews/humanorgan.html
Archived: https://web.archive.org/web/20160227051453/http://news.163.com/special/reviews/humanorgan.html
人体器官供需求解 来源:网易新闻
"“The Long Wait for a Transplant.” The World Transplant Games Federation."
Original: http://www.wtgf.org/page.asp?section=0001000100120014§ionTitle=China
"Damon Noto. Testimony at “Organ Harvesting of Religious and Political Dissidents by the Chinese Communist Party” hearing before the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives. September 12, 2012."
Original: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112hhrg75859/pdf/CHRG-112hhrg75859.pdf
"Climbing the peak of transplantation, continue the wonderfulness of life Source: Dongfeng General Hospital Nov. 18, 2009"
Original: http://www.dfmhp.com.cn/a/dongfengyilin/xingyedongtai/2010/1222/3020.html
Archived: https://archive.is/DATK4
攀登移植之巅 延续生命精彩 来源:东风医院 2009-11-18
"Wuhan University Research Institute of Hepatobiliary Diseases: A Race against Time www.people.com.cn – Hubei Channel May 21, 2015 Zhang Pei"
Original: http://www.transplantation.org.cn/zyienizhonghe/2015-05/7432.htm
Archived: https://archive.is/SzewF