Volume Indicators

Expanding Capacity

To meet the ever-increasing demand for transplants, most hospitals have expanded their transplant wards and even constructed new buildings that often include VIP-style amenities to cater to transplant recipients from other countries.

Shanghai Dongfang Hepatobiliary Hospital Anting New Campus1
Shanghai Changzheng Hospital Pudong campus2
Rendering: Birds-eye view of the central health care base at the People’s Liberation Army General Hospital in Sanya, Hainan3

Case Study: Asia’s largest-scale surgery building at Wuhan Union Hospital

The new surgery building at Wuhan Union Hospital opened in September 2006. It has 32 stories above ground and 2 underground. The integrated surgery ward building has 1,050 beds and 42 operating rooms.4 It can accommodate 200 surgeries per day, a volume equivalent to that of five medium and large-scale hospitals.5

The new surgical building at Wuhan Union Hospital

Its Urologic Surgery Department enjoys high academic status in China and has now become one of the largest kidney transplant centers in the region.6 The Liver Transplant Center is a main component of its General Surgery Department. Its heart transplantation and combined heart-lung transplantation are ‘state of the art’. The Cardiovascular Surgery Department once completed 4 heart transplants concurrently on the same day and claimed to have completed the most heart transplants in the country during 2014.7

Case Study: Surgery Building Busy 24 Hours a Day

The Urology Department of Shanghai Renji Hospital established a new wing and renal transplant ward in the Pudong district in November 1999. It has expanded from its original 29 beds to 70 beds. Its new medical team and distribution system allowed its number of surgeries to increase by 300%8 and performs over 5,000 surgeries per year, with over 60% being large and extra-large operations. The average hospitalization time is five days.9

“There are too many, too many patients! We have surgeries here overnight, nonstop for 24 hours a day,” Dr. Cheng Zheying told a Wenhui Daily reporter in March 2016.10 As many as 120 surgeries are performed here in a day. The most difficult and advanced surgeries, including robotic surgeries, are all performed here. This does not include liver transplants, as liver sources coming from other areas are often brought back to the hospital late at night, so it is quite common to conduct surgeries until early morning.

“The operating room is like a secret garden in the hospital. We have no time to be in contact with the outside world. The lights are on 24 hours a day here. Seven or eight o’clock at night is the same as in the morning. One can’t tell day from night,” Chen Zheying said.

In 2005, Renji Hospital’s east surgical building was put into use. It has 1,000 beds.11 The number of operating rooms has increased from 24 to 38.12 The Liver Transplant Center is located on the 14th and 15th floors of this new building.13 Before this, the Liver Transplant Center had increased its bed count from the original 13 at the end of September 2004 to 23 beds less than 10 days later. And later in June 2007, it increased to 90 beds14 and 110 beds in 2014.15 Its utilization rate and transplant volume also continued to hit new highs.

Continued Growth Despite Exposure

After 2006, when international attention was brought to bear on allegations of abusive organ harvesting in China, hospitals deflated and removed public disclosure of their transplant numbers. The Party/government used its spokespeople, media, and agents to create a false impression for the international community that the number of transplants in China was gradually decreasing.

In fact, the Party simply adjusted its strategy to be less public. Furthermore, the Ministry of Health’s new approval system implemented in 2007 contributed to the illusion that most hospitals had stopped performing transplants.

To the contrary, there was a spike in transplant volume between March 2006 and May 2007 in a rush to clear the donor bank inventory, after which the industry continued to grow steadily. We observed that some smaller institutions that did not receive approval either reduced or stopped performing transplants, while others that could still obtain organs continued to operate. However, large, approved institutions achieved even greater development with decreased competition and full government support.

Since 2000, organ transplantation has assumed a high priority in the government’s national strategy and as an emerging strategic industry to drive China’s future global development. It has continuously been incorporated in the National Five-Year Plan for multiple industries.16 17 18 19 20 National, military, and civilian agencies have invested heavily in research, development, and promotion of organ transplantation.

New Ministry Approval System Brought Stable Growth

After allegations were made in March 2006 that Falun Gong practitioners were being killed for organs in a death camp in Sujiatun, the Chinese regime remained silent for three weeks before its foreign ministry spokesman denied the existence of the camp.21 Then, the Ministry of Health attributed the illicit transplants to a chaotic market and announced that it would enact a new qualification system in July 2007 that would limit transplant operations to only the largest hospitals after approval.22

In the interim year, hospitals around the country rushed to clear their donor bank inventory, resulting in a spike in transplants.23 For example, Hunan People’s Hospital advertised on April 28, 2006 that it would offer 10 liver and 10 kidney transplants free of charge.24 The Jilin Heart Disease Hospital offered promotions for heart transplant operations with reduced fees for a “quick sale”—the first five heart recipients were charged only 50,000 RMB.25

That year, more than 1,000 transplant hospitals in China applied for permits under this new system.26 27 Among them, 164 eventually received permits.28 Under this system, large transplant centers faced less competition and achieved even greater development than before.

For example, the Liver Transplant Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University stated on February 28, 2011, “Our country`s liver transplantation business has entered a period of stable development. Under the leadership of academician Zheng Shusen, the liver transplant business at First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University is flourishing. It moved into a new building in 2007. Liver transplantation has become more systematic, professional, and large-scale.”29

Rendering: Bird’s-eye view of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Yuhang Branch30
Some transplant centers operated with bed utilization rates between 100% and 200%. This growth could be seen even at relatively small-scale hospitals that did not meet the Ministry’s requirements at the time for obtaining transplant approval, as listed below.

Zhengzhou No.7 People’s Hospital specializes in heart and kidney transplants. It had 200 beds upon its establishment.31 It was the first in Henan Province to perform an allogeneic kidney transplant.32 Its urology department is designated as the Zhengzhou City Kidney Transplantation and Blood Purification Center.33 34

Despite being a Class 2 hospital (with Class 3 being the highest), Zhengzhou No.7 was a “big player” in kidney transplantation in the province. When learning that only Class 3 Grade A hospitals would qualify for Ministry approval to perform transplants, the hospital’s Vice President, Wei Yan, said that kidney transplantation accounted for “a majority” of its business: “If we’re not allowed to do these [transplant] surgeries, that means half of the hospital’s business can’t be done anymore. It would cause enormous impact to the hospital’s development.”35

According to an August 2016 report, its kidney transplant department had multiple techniques reach international standards over the past twenty-plus years. The hospital’s kidney transplant quantity and quality consistently led the province, performing the first combined liver-kidney transplant and the first pancreas-kidney transplant in Zhengzhou City. Its 60+ medical personnel have “long been used to being on-call 24 hours a day. In 30 years of work, Director Wang Changan has not taken any public holidays off, traveled, or even entered a movie theater.”36

The hospital built two new wards, the first of which entered construction in 2006 with 600 open beds.37 On December 29, 2010, the entire hospital moved to its new site with 800 open beds. After becoming a Class 3 Grade A hospital in 2014, it started to construct another new riverside ward with 1,000 beds,38 increasing its total capacity to 1,800 beds.

Rendering: Bird’s-eye view of Zhengzhou No.7 People’s Hospital (new campus in the Economic Development Zone)39

In March 2015, an internal communication indicated a 130% bed utilization rate in its kidney transplant department.40 However, it reportedly had only 46 beds and 50 kidney transplants, a figure that is most likely deflated by an order of magnitude given the growth trends outlined above.

Web page of the kidney transplant department at Zhengzhou No. 7 People’s Hospital, dated March 31, 2015

Despite having approval for only kidney transplants, the Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College has also performed liver, bone marrow, cornea, stem cell, and other types of transplants. In 2012, its urologic surgery department reportedly had 51 beds and maintained a level of 100 patients, resulting in a utilization rate of around 200%.41 The department has since been expanded to 100 beds.42

The Tianjin Medical University General Hospital’s website showed in 2016 that its general surgery department had a subordinate organ transplant research institute, which conducts liver, small intestine, and other abdominal organ transplants. The department has 208 beds and averages a 115% utilization rate.43 Its lung cancer surgery department contains the Tianjin Lung Transplant Center, which has 110 beds for its professional clinical team and admits an average of over 160 inpatients per month.44 Its urologic surgery department conducts kidney transplants, has 96 beds, and admits up to 150 inpatients per month.45 Its ophthalmology center carries out corneal transplants, has 42 beds, and admits more than 100 inpatients each month on average.46

Furthermore, many unapproved hospitals did not, in fact, stop performing organ transplants. We list 75 hospitals that did not receive permits in 2007 yet continued to perform transplants and were later admitted into a pilot program for donations after cardiac death (DCD) starting in 2011. By January 2014, the approval list had been expanded to 169 hospitals.47 48

Many hospitals have increased their number of transplant beds and opened new wards and buildings since 2006. The transplant business in China has developed with not only an abundance of available organs since around the year 2000, but also, evidently, with a confidence that this abundance will continue into the foreseeable future.

Demand Outstripping Capacity

The increased capacity of transplant centers still could not meet the demand driving high bed utilization and transplant volume. For example, the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University had over 1,000 people waiting for an organ.49 The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University also had over 1,000 patients waiting for transplants.50 As of 2013, the No. 309 Hospital’s PLA Organ Transplant Research Institute has had 5,000 to 6,000 patients waiting for transplants each year.51

A People’s Daily Online report on January 20, 2011 stated, “In a ward in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, where Zheng Shusen is located, currently lay more than 50 patients who urgently need liver transplants … At the Tianjin First Center Hospital Oriental Organ Transplant Center, there are no fewer than a thousand late-stage liver disease patients registered on the waiting list for liver transplants…”52

Limiting Factors for Transplant Volume

The high bed and staff utilization mentioned above and the continued expansion of existing transplant centers and plans to qualify so many new ones suggest that the number of transplant operations are constrained by medical facilities and personnel rather than organ sources.

This can also be seen in the following examples of the regime’s push to export organ sources and promote China’s transplantation to markets outside of China.

In December 2014, Huang Jiefu went to Taiwan to propose the establishment of a “cross-strait organ exchange platform” to export human organs from the mainland to Taiwan, such that “patients would no longer need to travel from Taiwan to mainland China to undergo transplants.”53

During a conference held in Guangzhou on August 22-23, 2015 by China’s Organ Procurement Organization Alliance, Huang Jiefu promoted China’s organ transplantation to the world during an interview by Peng Pai News, stating, “… The future transplant costs in China will still be the cheapest and most accessible in the world, and [the transplants will be] of high quality.”54

Huang Jiefu addressed the limiting factors of organ transplantation in China during a televised interview on January 12, 2015:55

“The first is an economic reason. A transplant surgery is very expensive, and not many citizens can afford the medical costs. The second is that, even though we have such well-qualified hospitals, there aren’t that many experienced and skilled doctors. Only the third is that there are not that many donor bodies; even though donor bodies are abundant right now, there aren’t that many hospitals and that many doctors that can [perform transplants].”

Above, Huang indicated that the availability of organs was not the main limitation.

Ambitious Plans for Growth

In October 2015, Huang Jiefu told Beijing Youth Daily that China had only 169 hospitals with permits to perform one or more types of transplant operations. He expressed a desire to increase the number of qualified transplant hospitals from 169 to 300 and train 400 to 500 young doctors.56

China Daily later reported on May 15, 2016 that, according to Huang, “China will increase the number of hospitals conducting organ transplants to 300 in the next five years.”57

In his latest statement on January 2, 2017, Huang told People’s Daily, “We’re currently short of doctors, short of hospitals, short of coordinators … We’re calling to grow [from 169] to 300 to 500 hospitals.”58

Overworked Doctors and Nurses

We observed that a number of medical teams and individual doctors routinely struggled to carry out the volume of transplants demanded of them, including in recent years. Surgeons work overtime to procure organs and conduct transplants with surgical departments frequently carrying out multiple transplants simultaneously. One hospital even resorted to training almost all its general surgeons to conduct organ transplants.

It was common to see accounts of surgeons performing transplants for 20 hours without rest and getting little sleep each day.59 Doctors were so busy procuring kidneys that they are “often unable to go home for one or two weeks at a time.”60

Case Study: Working Around the Clock

At the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, the director of the Urological Transplant Department, Peng Longkai, has completed more than 2,000 kidney transplants.61

One can infer the volume of transplants at this hospital from how busy its doctors have been:

“Transplant surgeons often have to work for over 20 consecutive hours performing surgeries. They will start another round of operations after they rest for three or four hours. The surgeons are still at the operating table, while the scrub nurses have changed several shifts. They often conduct a dozen operations over a period of 2 to 3 days. They once performed 9 kidney transplants in one day.”62

Case Study: Kidney Supply Chain Overwhelmed

“If I’m not at the hospital, I’m at the kidney procurement location. If I’m not at the kidney procurement location, I’m on the way between the hospital and the kidney procurement location.” This was the portrayal of the busy lifestyle of the transplant team at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University. Members of the team were often unable to go home for one or two weeks at a time. On December 26, 2010, a report on its official website stated:63

“Due to the current international criticism of organ sourcing in China, the number of usable cadaveric donor kidneys has decreased significantly, causing an increase in uncertain factors and intense competition. However, due to the tireless efforts of Director Dong Laidong of the Organ Transplant Supply Department and Director Tian Jun, of the Blood Purification Department, the number of cadaveric kidney transplants well surpassed that of last year, and the wait time for kidney transplants has not increased noticeably.”

Case Study: All Hands On Deck

Dongfeng Company Hospital

This fervor in pushing transplant volume is not limited to national-level hospitals. We have found that transplantation has become a major business activity for municipal hospitals and subsidiary hospitals of state-owned enterprises, as exemplified by the case below.

The Dongfeng Company Hospital is operated by an automaker in Shiyan, a small industrial city in central China. In less than ten years, the explosive growth in this hospital’s transplantation activities “caused the local economy to prosper,” “elevated the city’s reputation,” and gradually replaced the Dongfeng vehicle as the new “business card of Shiyan.”64

As early as in August 2000, it had conducted 10 kidney transplants, one thyroid transplant, and 3 corneal transplants in the same day. The hospital also performs liver, corneal, in situ parathyroid, bone marrow, and other types of organ and tissue transplants.65

The hospital’s vice president Yuan Fangjun stated in 2009, “Kidney transplantation is now a routine surgery. Almost all surgeons at our hospital can independently complete kidney transplants.”66

According to the hospital’s website, it has 10 surgical departments and more than 100 surgeons. How many transplants is the hospital performing to necessitate training almost all its surgeons in this procedure?

In addition, the hospital has a breast transplant department with more than 40 beds, 3 chief physicians, 2 associate chief physicians, 4 attending physicians, and 3 residents.67 These doctors’ web pages are no longer accessible.

Case Study: “A Decade of Memories”

Xi’an High-Tech District Hospital is a joint venture with a British hospital management company. Its organ transplant center was established in 2003. The Ministry of Health has not approved this Class 3 Grade B hospital for transplants.

Rendering and Photos: Xi’an High-Tech District Hospital68
In September 2012, during the tenth anniversary of its Urological Surgery Department, the hospital published an article describing the department’s efforts in achieving annual revenues of 10 million RMB. This “glorious achievement” came just five years after its establishment.”69

“Thinking about those days, we would leave before dawn for the train station, airport, or another hospital to pick up one patient after another. Regardless of the summer heat or the winter chill, 4 or 5 people were crammed into an old, dilapidated van, excising [source] organs. Thinking of the 7 or 8 transplant surgeries done in one day and one night, thinking about watching over critically ill patients and not leaving the hospital for one or two weeks…”

Case Study: “Addicted” Transplant Surgeon

According to an online posting, “Renji Hospital Liver Transplant Center was officially established on September 20, 2004. The hospital recruited Xia Qiang as its lead surgeon. Although he had already completed several hundred liver transplants successfully, Xia was still relatively inexperienced within the Chinese transplant community at the time.”70

In a report by Jiefang Daily on January 26, 2005, Xia said, “I’m obsessed with liver transplants. It’s like I’m addicted to it. I would feel uncomfortable if I don’t go to the ward to see patients for one day. I do at least two to five liver transplants a week. I’m not afraid of failures. I would carefully analyze and summarize and continue to do it the next day.” Exactly how many liver transplants had he done? Xia had lost count. He remembers only his record of six liver transplants in one day.71 Even now, a classical liver transplant takes four to six hours to complete; in 2005, the operation time was even longer.

Xia said, “The management of my team is militarized. Every medical staff member must keep their cell phone turned on 24 hours a day because liver transplants may require going out for graft procurement or preparing for surgery at any time. We doctors must be on standby at all times.”72 In 2013, a Wenhui Daily article stated, “Renji Hospital conducts liver transplants surgeries continuously and doctors could not get out of the hospital all night long.”73

Hospitals Perform Multiple Transplants Simultaneously

Another common pattern we observed were hospitals routinely performing multiple transplants a day. No longer a special achievement, one department conducted more than 10 or even 20 kidney transplants within 24 hours.

Case Study: Wuhan Union Hospital Reinstalls 4 Hearts in One Afternoon

According to a 2013 report by the Wuhan Evening News,74 on the morning of June 20, Union Hospital’s Cardiac Surgery Department received notice that 4 donor hearts were available for transplant.

The same afternoon, the hospital’s vice president Hu Yu gave the order to perform 4 heart transplants simultaneously. More than 200 medical personnel, including 13 professors and 17 associate professors from the Cardiac Surgery Department, split into 4 teams, each of which independently completed donor selection, procurement, matching, and transplantation.

On June 21 at 10:43, four hearts were simultaneously transported to operating rooms at Union Hospital. At 11:50, led by Professor Dong Nianguo, Director of the Cardiac Surgery Department, four specialist teams began performing four heart transplants at the same time. In the 22 minutes between 13:47 and 14:09, four hearts were beating again in four end-stage heart disease patients.

At the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University in March 2006, a Guangzhou Daily reporter witnessed 5 liver and 6 kidney transplants being conducted simultaneously. The center’s record for kidney transplants was 19 in one day. It has also performed 6 liver transplants and one multi-organ transplant in one day.75

The hospital stated on its news website that it has had “tens of thousands” of liver or kidney recipients.76 Professor Zheng Keli, who directed the organ transplant department, has led more than 3,000 kidney transplants.77 The department’s current director, He Xiaoshun, has reportedly completed 1,300 liver transplants.78

Xinqiao Hospital, affiliated with the Third Military Medical University in Chongqing, once carried out 24 kidney transplants in one day and had conducted 2,590 kidney transplants by 2002.79

On December 1, 2008, Qilu Evening News reported that the General Hospital of Jinan Military Command was capable of performing 6 kidney transplants simultaneously. It set a record of 16 kidney transplants within 24 hours. Its annual transplant volume has ranked among the nation’s top 10 for ten consecutive years.80

The Liver Transplant Center at West China Hospital has five full sets of imported liver transplant equipment, allowing five liver transplant operations to be performed simultaneously.81 The Center once performed seven liver transplants in one day, setting a national record.82

On February 18, 2014, sixteen doctors of the Hepatology Center at Fuzhou General Hospital of the Nanjing Military Command simultaneously carried out five liver transplants within seventeen hours.83

At Wuxi People’s Hospital, Chen Jingyu, “the No.1 Lung Transplant Surgeon in China,” often completed four or five lung transplants a day.84The Xiangya Hospital of Central South University completed one liver, 6 kidney, and 8 corneal transplants on May 26, 2005.85 On September 3, 2005, it performed 7 heart, liver, and kidney transplants.86 On April 28, 2006, the organ transplant center conducted 17 transplants in one day, including 7 advanced-stage uremic patients simultaneously. On the same day, it also completed two liver transplants and 8 corneal transplants.87

Beijing Chaoyang Hospital reportedly conducted 21 transplant surgeries in one day around 2000.88The founder of the transplant center at the Second People’s Hospital of Shanxi, Wu Xiaotong, often spent 12 hours a day performing transplant surgeries, one after another. In August 2006, the center recorded over 100 patients waiting for transplants at any given time. It conducted 11 kidney transplants on August 15th alone.89

Most Prolific Institutions and Individuals

Over the past decade, the Chinese authorities have not released the annual volume of individual hospitals and only claimed that a total of about 10,000 organ transplants are performed each year.90 However, even from the data scattered on hospital websites, it is clear that just a few hospitals and individual surgeons would easily surpass this number.

Much transplant data previously published have been actively removed and deflated in China, especially after illicit organ harvesting first gained international attention in 2006. For example, some transplant departments’ official annual figures account for less than 10% of their bed and personnel capacity. Nevertheless, in some cases, we have been able to compare numbers between different types of data from a variety of sources to get a sense of an institution’s true scale and its surgeons’ transplantation activities, some of whom have individually led thousands of transplant surgeries.

Tianjin First Central Hospital established its Oriental Organ Transplant Center in 1998 with an investment of less than 20,000 RMB. The center broke ground in 2002 on its new 17-story building with 500 transplant beds. The Tianjin municipal government provided about 25,000,000 RMB in funding, aiming to build Asia’s largest integrated organ transplant center.

One of the most prolific institutions is Tianjin First Central Hospital’s Oriental Organ Transplant Center, which expanded to 500 beds in 2006. It reached 90% bed utilization rates by 200991 and 131% in 2013.92 The Center can simultaneously carry out nine liver transplants and eight kidney transplants. Based on its bed count, a 100% utilization rate and an average hospitalization time of 3 to 4 weeks for liver transplants, the Center would be able to perform 6,000 to 8,000 transplants per year. It claims to have completed just 10,000 transplants in total,93 but this number would have easily been surpassed by just a few of its surgeons such as Shen Zhongyang whose biography says he had performed nearly 10,000 liver transplants by 2014.94 It was reported that, under his guidance, each of his former student doctors has independently completed nearly 1,000 liver transplant surgeries.95

A media report stated, “As a leader, Shen Zhongyang has virtually no time for himself. In the past ten-plus years, he has basically gone from one thing to the next, day and night, he hasn’t had a single meal at regular times, and he’s often at the operating table until midnight or the following morning.”96

Other transplant doctors also have not rested: “The hospital’s transplant surgery division’s doctors hurriedly shuttle between wards and operating rooms, with no time to greet one another. They kept saying, ‘These few days are crazy busy, with more than a dozen surgeries a day.’ Some doctors were even “rushing surgeries all night long [and] did not sleep at all.” Doctors complain that the off-season is only a month after the New Year; they are busy until the end of the year and normally don’t go home.”97

The People’s Liberation Army Organ Transplant Center at No. 309 Hospital has 231 medical and research personnel. It had 316 beds in 2010 and 393 beds in 2012,98 though its website now says it has 330 beds. Its bed utilization rates reportedly lead that of similar military organizations. It once completed 12 kidney transplants overnight.99

As of 2014, Tan Jianming, vice president of Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command, has led more than 4,200 kidney transplants. Tan was previously also part-time Director of the Urology and Transplantation Department at Shanghai Jiaotong University’s First People’s Hospital and its Shanghai Organ Transplant Center.100

Shanghai Changzheng Hospital affiliated with the Second Military Medical University, hosts two prolific doctors. Zhu Youhua, who is considered a leader in the People’s Liberation Army on kidney transplantation, completed 3,680 kidney transplants by 2010.101

Fu Yaowen, founder of the First Hospital of Jilin University’s kidney transplantation program and blood purification center, completed 3,000 kidney transplants as of April 2009.102

In a paper published in 2004, Yu Lixin, director of the transplant department at Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University, stated that the hospital had conducted 2,123 kidney transplants as of November 2001.103

One particularly prolific institution is Xinqiao Hospital, affiliated with the Third Military Medical University. Its Renal Diseases Research Center claimed that it had “conducted 2,590 kidney transplants by 2002 … and once performed 24 kidney transplants in one day.”104

According to an introduction published by sohu.com in 2005, Guan Delin at Beijing Huaxin Hospital (First Affiliated Hospital of Tsinghua University) had experience in “over 2,700 kidney transplants, over 40 kidney transplants from relative donors, and close to 20 combined kidney-pancreas transplants.”105

The Guangdong No.2 Provincial People’s Hospital’s organ transplant department was established in 1999. Its director, Liu Dong, personally participated in more than 2,000 kidney and liver transplant surgeries by 2015.106 Deputy director Wu Jiaqing revealed that, prior to August 3, 2006, the department performed “more than 10 organ transplant surgeries every day,” and that “beginning in August 2006, patients from 8-9 countries came to the hospital for organ transplants, including from Singapore, Cambodia, and France.”107

The Navy General Hospital in Beijing “has helped thousands of end-stage liver cancer patients gain a second life through liver transplantation.”108


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华中科技大学附属协和医院- 心血管外科,来源:华中科技大学附属协和医院
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上海仁济医院 - 泌尿外科
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仰望星空——记第九届中国医师奖得主, 附属仁济医院肝脏外科主任夏强 2014-07-04
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上海交通大学医学院附属仁济医院 麻醉科
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Original: http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZJiaoTongDaXueYiXueYuanFuShuRenJiYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-03/5506.htm
Archived: https://archive.is/759ji
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Original: http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZJiaoTongDaXueYiXueYuanFuShuRenJanDui/2007-06/1587.htm
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"Looking at the Stars-Biography of Xia Qiang, Winner of the Ninth Chinese Physician Award, Director of the Liver Surgery Department at Renji Hospital Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine July 4, 2014"
Original: http://www2.shsmu.edu.cn/default.php?mod=article&do=detail&tid=354467
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仰望星空——记第九届中国医师奖得主, 附属仁济医院肝脏外科主任夏强 2014-07-04
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中国卫生科技发展第十个五年计划及2010年远景规划纲要 中华人民共和国国家卫生和计划生育委员会 2004-06-03
"Ministry of Health issued the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Eleventh Five-Year Plan to support four projects Guidelines for application"
Original: http://news.sciencenet.cn/htmlnews/2008228163031735202339.html
Archived: https://archive.is/SxgyM#selection-303.3-303.6
卫生部发布“十一五”科技支撑计划四项目课题申请指南 2008-02-28
"Meeting Minutes on the 12th Five-year Plan Strategy Study Workshop – National High-tech R&D Program of China (863 Program) on Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering"
Original: http://www.gzbio.net/web/gsrc/info/201202168700.html
Archived: https://archive.is/buGh0
863计划干细胞与组织工程 - “十二五”战略研讨会会议纪要
"The project start meeting of 863 Program on the fielf of biology and modern medical was held in Beijing 2012-07-31"
Original: http://www.cncbd.org.cn/News/Detail/3001
Archived: https://archive.is/2GU4s
https://archive.is/npahC “十二五”863计划生物和医药技术领域现代医学技术主题项目启动会在京召开 2012-07-31
"Sujiatun Case Exposed for Three Weeks; Chinese Communist Party Makes First Formal Response. Epoch Times. 30 March 2006."
Original: http://www.epochtimes.com.tw/6/3/30/24771.htm
蘇家屯案曝光三週 中共首次正式回應 大纪元 更新: 2006年03月30日
"Ministry of Health Notice Regarding the Issuing of “Trial Regulations for Clinical Application and Management of Human Organ Transplantation Technology “"
Original: http://www.moh.gov.cn/mohbgt/pw10604/200804/18344.shtml
"Investigation Report of Live Organ Harvesting from Falun Gong Practitioners Throughout Mainland China. World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong."
Original: http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/699
"Twenty Free Organ Transplant Surgeries. Sina News. 28 April 2006."
Original: http://news.sina.com.cn/w/2006-04-28/08008809252s.shtml
Archived: http://web.archive.org/web/20160122183140/http://news.sina.com.cn/w/2006-04-28/08008809252s.shtml
《新浪新闻中心》免费进行20例器官移植手术 2006年04月28日
"The tragedy is still going on. Minghui. 9 May 2006."
Original: http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/5/9/127277p.html
《明慧网》惨绝人寰的悲剧仍在进行 2006年5月9日
"Climbing the peak of transplantation, continue the wonderfulness of life Source: Dongfeng General Hospital Nov. 18th, 2009"
Original: http://www.dfmhp.com.cn/a/dongfengyilin/xingyedongtai/2010/1222/3020.html
Archived: https://archive.is/DATK4
攀登移植之巅 延续生命精彩 来源:东风总医院 2009-11-18
"Wuhan University Research Institute of Hepatobiliary Diseases: A Race against Time www.people.com.cn – Hubei Channel May 21, 2015 Zhang Pei"
Original: http://www.transplantation.org.cn/zyienizhonghe/2015-05/7432.htm
Archived: https://archive.is/SzewF
"164 hospitals in China passed examination and approval by the Ministry of Health to carry out organ transplants Source: China News Net August 18, 2007"
Original: http://health.chinanews.cn/jk/hyxw/news/2007/08-18/1005195.shtml
Archived: http://web.archive.org/web/20070917151717/http://health.chinanews.cn/jk/hyxw/news/2007/08-18/1005195.shtml
"Introduction of Liver Transplantation Centre at The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University"
Original: http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZheJiangDaXueFuShuDiYiYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-02/5400.htm
Archived: https://archive.is/j0gn7
"Birds-eye view of the First Hospital Affiliated with Zhejiang University Medical College, Yuhang Branch"
Original: http://www.news.zju.edu.cn/news.php?id=40939
Archived: https://archive.is/6wdlg
"Introduction to Zhengzhou No. 7 People’s Hospital"
Original: http://www.120.net/yiyuan/jieshao/03o2blgaszpknec8.html
Archived: http://web.archive.org/web/20170418164331/http://www.120.net/yiyuan/jieshao/03o2blgaszpknec8.html
"Department of Renal Transplantation and Nephrology of Zhengzhou No. 7 People’s Hospital has 30 years of continuous life relay race"
Original: http://www.jinbw.com.cn/healthnews/2016-08-09/n_147067781431020.html
Archived: https://archive.is/6GH24
"Introduction to Zhengzhou No. 7 People’s Hospital"
Original: http://www.120.net/yiyuan/jieshao/03o2blgaszpknec8.html
Archived: http://web.archive.org/web/20170418164331/http://www.120.net/yiyuan/jieshao/03o2blgaszpknec8.html
"Brief Introduction to Zhengzhou No. 7 People’s Hospital"
Original: http://www.alifeatime.org/meeting/201103/%E9%83%91%E4%B8%83%E7%AE%80%E4%BB%8B.pdf
Archived: https://archive.is/6rvUU
"Organ transplant threshold higher, more than half of the transplant hospitals in Henan will lose qualification"
Original: http://www.transplantation.org.cn/zyieneilifa/2006-07/564.htm
Archived: http://web.archive.org/web/20170330033401/http://www.transplantation.org.cn/zyieneilifa/2006-07/564.htm
器官移植门槛"长高" 河南过半医院将失去此资格 来源:大河报 2006年7月6日 记者王芷荭
"Department of Renal Transplantation and Nephrology of Zhengzhou No. 7 People’s Hospital has 30 years of continuous life relay race"
Original: http://www.jinbw.com.cn/healthnews/2016-08-09/n_147067781431020.html
Archived: https://archive.is/6GH24
"Zhengzhou No. 7 People’s Hospital builds its brand of heart and kidney"
Original: http://epaper.dahe.cn/hnrb/t20070620_1008612.htm
Archived: http://web.archive.org/web/20170418192206/http://epaper.dahe.cn/hnrb/t20070620_1008612.htm
鹰雁团队:用爱心修补生命——郑州市第七人民医院打造一流心肾专科品牌纪实 来源:河南日报 2007年06月20日
Original: http://www.chinaasc.org/news/108747.html
Archived: http://web.archive.org/web/20170418183348/http://www.chinaasc.org/news/108747.html
机械工业第六设计研究院中标郑州市第七人民医院滨河院区项目 来源:中国建筑学会网站(中机六院供稿) 2015年8月24日
"The 30-year life relay race played by the Department of Renal Transplant Nephrology of Zhengzhou No. 7 People’s Hospital"
Original: http://www.jinbw.com.cn/healthnews/2016-08-09/n_147067781431020.html
Archived: https://archive.is/6GH24
"Department of Kidney Transplantation and Nephrology at Zhengzhou No. 7 People’s Hospital – Current situation"
Original: http://www.zzsqy.com.cn/OfficeNewsDetail-38.html
Archived: https://archive.is/Srlbv
郑州市第七人民医院肾移植肾内科 科室动态
"Training experience at the Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College"
Original: http://www.0575fy.com/html/2012/83_0820/3679.html
Archived: https://archive.is/fTJl9
遵义医学院附属医院进修之体会 来源:绍兴文理学院附属医院官网
"The Department of Urologic Surgery at the Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College"
Original: http://www.zmchospital.com.cn/Office/Show.asp?ID=97
Archived: https://archive.is/xHgu9
"Introduction to Department of General Surgery of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital"
Original: http://www.tjmugh.com.cn/info/content1.asp?infoId=2180
Archived: https://archive.is/Rzuou
"Introduction to Department of Lung Cancer Surgery of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital"
Original: http://www.tjmugh.com.cn/info/content1.asp?infoId=2191
Archived: https://web.archive.org/web/20160516235129/http://www.tjmugh.com.cn/info/content1.asp?infoId=2191
"Introduction to Urologic Department of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital"
Original: http://www.tjmugh.com.cn/info/content1.asp?infoId=2176
Archived: https://archive.is/vWyLb
"Introduction to Ophthalmology Department of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital"
Original: http://www.tjmugh.com.cn/info/content1.asp?infoId=2190
Archived: https://archive.is/99nQ9
"List of Hospitals Approved to Carry Out Human Organ Transplantation National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China"
Original: http://web.archive.org/web/20140107075300/
Archived: http://www.moh.gov.cn/zhuzhan/sjcx/201308/1ef2115e6ce84414b28bcc4b608d0910.shtml
已批准开展人体器官移植项目的医院名单, 中华人民共和国国家卫生和计划生育委员会,
"List of Hospitals Approved to Carry Out Human Organ Transplantation Source: China Organ Transplantation Development Foundation"
Original: http://www.yzjjh.org/index.php?m=content&c=index&a=show&catid=23&id=77
Archived: http://web.archive.org/web/20170108230716/http://www.yzjjh.org/index.php?m=content&c=index&a=show&catid=23&id=77
已批准开展人体器官移植项目的医院名单, 来源:中国器官移植发展基金会,
"Exploring Xiangya Organ Transplantation: Thousands of People Waiting for Surgery; Most Are Young Source: Sanxiang City News. Sina. November 10, 2012."
Original: http://hunan.sina.com.cn/news/s/2012-11-10/095024769.html
Archived: https://archive.is/dmgjS
探秘湘雅器官移植:上千人等待手术 多是年轻人 来源:华声在线-三湘都市报2012年11月10日
"Xi’an Jiaotong University First Affiliated Hospital Has Performed Over 4,000 Kidney Transplants; Longest Survival 35 Years. China News, April 17, 2015"
Original: http://www.chinanews.com/jk/2015/04-17/7216205.shtml
Archived: https://archive.is/WLEQa
西安交大一附院肾移植超4000例 最长存活35年  来源:中国新闻网 2015年04月17日
"The Road of Organ Transplantation in China Dooland.com. Source: Oriental Outlook. September 27, 2013."
Original: http://www.dooland.com/magazine/article_303295.html
Archived: https://archive.is/U7wHH
中国器官移植之路 来源:瞭望东方周刊 2013-09-27
"Liu, Yongxiao. “The Journey of a Healthy Liver.” People.cn. Health Times, January 20, 2011. Page 3."
Original: http://paper.people.com.cn/jksb/html/2011-01/20/content_728278.htm
Archived: https://archive.is/w95TU
一只健康肝的旅行 人民网 《健康时报》(2011年01月20日 第 03 版)记者 刘永晓
"[News Report] Promoting a Rebound in Cross-Strait Physician Teams on the Organ Transplantation Platform"
Original: http://newtalk.tw/news/view/2014-12-22/55049
Archived: https://archive.is/18BX3
"Chinese Organ Tranplant Fees to be Standardized, Named “Cheapest in the World” by Former Deputy Health Minister Source: ThePaper.cn"
Original: http://www.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_forward_1367467
中国器官移植费用将定标准,原卫生部副部长称“全球最便宜” 来源:澎湃新闻
"Huang Jiefu recalled for the first time to participate in transplant organs from death-row prisoners, disclose the truth, supported by CCP Central Committee Source: Phoenix TV January 12th, 2015"
Original: http://phtv.ifeng.com/a/20150112/40940402_0.shtml
Archived: https://archive.is/qKzmB
黄洁夫回忆首次参与死囚器官移植披露真相, 获中央支持 来源:凤凰卫视 2015年1月12日
"Organ source transformed, however the number of transplant rises up instead of falling downing Source: Beijing Youth Daily October 15th, 2015"
Original: http://epaper.ynet.com/html/2015-10/19/content_159772.htm
Archived: https://archive.is/T3N0y
黄洁夫:器官来源转型 移植数不降反升 《北京青年报》 2015年10月15日
"China to have more organ transplantation hospitals China Daily. Source: Xinhua. May 15, 2016."
Original: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2016-05/15/content_25287057.htm
Archived: https://archive.is/JYZSB
中国将有更多移植医院 来源:中国日报 2016-05-15
"Which hurdles organ donation in China needs to overcome People Daily Jan 2, 2017."
Original: http://paper.people.com.cn/rmrbhwb/html/2017-01/02/content_1740227.htm
Archived: https://archive.is/DHnWJ
中国器官捐献尚需跨越哪些坎 人民日报 2017年01月02日
"Time of Dragons Soaring and Tigers Leaping – Kidney Transplantation Department of Organ Transplantation Center, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University Hunan Online – Public Health October 21, 2005"
Original: http://hunan.voc.com.cn/content/2005-10/21/content_3479431.htm
Archived: https://archive.is/xlZWE
龙腾虎跃正当时―记中南大学湘雅二医院器官移植中心肾移植科 湖南在线-大众卫生报2005年10月21日
"Our Hospital’s Cadaveric Kidney Transplant Numbers Greatly Exceed Last Year’s Source: Department of Blood Purification at Qilu Hospital. December 26, 2010. www.qiluhospital.com"
Original: http://www.qiluhospital.com/site57/ksxw/15301.shtml
Archived: https://archive.is/67ofi
我院尸体肾移植数目大幅超越去年 来源:齐鲁医院血液净化科 2010-12-26
"The Second Xiangya Hospital – Expert Profile – Peng, Longkai"
Original: http://www.xyeyy.com/Pages/MZB/ZjIntro.aspx?staffid=503
Archived: https://archive.is/bCwpK
"Time of Dragons Soaring and Tigers Leaping – Kidney Transplantation Department of Organ Transplantation Center, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University Hunan Online – Public Health October 21, 2005"
Original: http://hunan.voc.com.cn/content/2005-10/21/content_3479431.htm
Archived: https://archive.is/xlZWE
龙腾虎跃正当时―记中南大学湘雅二医院器官移植中心肾移植科 湖南在线-大众卫生报 2005年10月21日
"Our Hospital’s Cadaveric Kidney Transplant Numbers Greatly Exceed Last Year’s Source: Department of Blood Purification at Qilu Hospital. December 26, 2010. www.qiluhospital.com"
Original: http://www.qiluhospital.com/site57/ksxw/15301.shtml
Archived: https://archive.is/67ofi
我院尸体肾移植数目大幅超越去年 来源:齐鲁医院血液净化科 2010-12-26
"“Organ Transplant” of General Hospital Awarded First “Shiyan Business Card” Title Source: Dongfeng General Hospital Nov. 12th, 2011"
Original: http://www.dfmhp.com.cn/a/dongfengyilin/yiyuanyaowen/2011/1102/7158.html
Archived: https://archive.is/WUH4j
总医院“器官移植”荣获首届“十堰名片”称号 来源:东风总医院 2011-11-02
"“Organ Transplant” of General Hospital Awarded First “Shiyan Business Card” Title, Source: Dongfeng General Hospital Nov. 12th, 2011"
Original: http://www.dfmhp.com.cn/a/dongfengyilin/yiyuanyaowen/2011/1102/7158.html
Archived: https://archive.is/WUH4j
总医院“器官移植”荣获首届“十堰名片”称号 来源:东风总医院 2011-11-02
"Climbing the peak of transplantation, continue the wonderfulness of life Source: Dongfeng General Hospital Nov. 18th, 2009"
Original: http://www.dfmhp.com.cn/a/dongfengyilin/xingyedongtai/2010/1222/3020.html
Archived: https://archive.is/DATK4
攀登移植之巅 延续生命精彩 来源:东风总医院 2009-11-18
"Organ Transplantation Breast Surgery of Dongfeng General Hospital Source: Dongfeng General Hospital"
Original: http://www.dfmhp.com.cn/a/keshidaohang/shoushukeshi/qiguanyizhi/
Archived: https://archive.is/ZkHcG
东风总医院器官移植乳腺外科 来源:东风总医院
"Birds-eye view of Xi’an High-Tech District Hospital Source: Xi’an High-Tech District Hospital"
Original: http://www.gxyy.net/aboutpc-8.html
Archived: http://web.archive.org/web/20170112170806/http://www.gxyy.net/aboutpc-8.html
西安高新医院鸟瞰图 来源:西安高新医院
"A decade of the Urology Surgery Department, A Decade of Memory Source: Xi’an High-Tech District Hospital Sept.5th, 2012 Author: Zhang Liuyong"
Original: http://www.gxyy.net/ksnewsshow-1886.html
Archived: https://archive.is/thn12
十年泌尿外科 10年记忆 来源:西安高新医院 2012-09-05 作者:张刘勇
"Shanghai Jiaotong University President Award Network Selection"
Archived: https://archive.is/qDlBC/
"Xia Qiang: A Young General of Liver Transplantation Source: people.com.cn, June 23, 2006, reporter: Huang Qi"
Original: http://scitech.people.com.cn/GB/1057/4520977.html
Archived: http://scitech.people.com.cn/GB/1057/4520977.html
夏强:肝移植学科的少帅 《人民网》 2006年06月23日 黄祺
"The Miracle of 37 and 32 Source: sina.com.cn / Courtesy: Xinmin Weekly June 14, 2006"
Original: http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2006-06-14/143310153952.shtml
Archived: https://web.archive.org/web/20160112163108/http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2006-06-14/143310153952.shtml
《37与32的奇迹》 来源:新浪网 / 新民周刊 2006年06月14日
"Facing Many Liver Transplant Surgeries, Doctors Work Through the Night at Renji Hospital Source: Sina Shanghai, Eastday.com-Wen Wei Po, August 19, 2013"
Original: http://sh.sina.com.cn/news/k/2013-08-19/085558296.html?from=sh_ydph
Archived: https://web.archive.org/web/20160112163630/http://sh.sina.com.cn/news/k/2013-08-19/085558296.html?from=sh_ydph
仁济医院肝移植手术连台 医生彻夜走不出医院 来源:新浪上海 / 东方网-文汇报,2013年8月19日
"The Union Hospital “reinstalled” 4 hearts within 22 minutes Source: Wuhan Evening News, June 25, 2013"
Original: http://whwb.cjn.cn/html/2013-06/25/content_5179875.htm
Archived: https://web.archive.org/web/20160613035243/http://whwb.cjn.cn/html/2013-06/25/content_5179875.htm
协和医院22分钟内“重装”4颗心 来源:武汉晚报 2013年6月25日
"Renewed Life after Organ Transplant Source: Guangzhou Daily, Date: March 14, 2006"
Original: http://gzdaily.dayoo.com/gb/content/2006-03/14/content_2439521.htm
Archived: https://archive.is/ZhPn3
器官移植重续生命乐章 来源:广州日报 2006年3月14日
"100th Anniversary of First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University Source: xkb.com.cn October 9, 2010."
Original: http://epaper.xkb.com.cn/view/576424
Archived: https://archive.is/jAWwN
中山一院今庆百岁华诞 来源:新快报 2010-10-09
"Guangdong Provincial People’s Hospital – experts Zheng Ke li The original link has been removed, refer to its archived page:"
Original: https://web.archive.org/web/20140326223343/
Archived: http://www.gd2h.com/zhuanjia.asp?pid=26&nid=118
广东省第二人民医院 - 专家介绍 郑克力
"Introduction to Peng Chenghong, Ranking List of Top 100 Famous Doctors in China – Top10DR"
Original: http://www.top10dr.com/mingyi/201511/infos2201.html
Archived: http://archive.is/3byRy
"A Brief History of the Urology Surgery Department of the PLA Kidney Disease Center, p.157"
Original: http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/files/report/2015/06/48090_image007.jpg
Archived: http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/files/report/2015/06/48090_image007.jpg
《全军肾脏病中心泌尿外科简史》 157页
"General Hospital of Jinan Military Command Source: Qilu Evening News March 21, 2005"
Original: http://paper.dzwww.com/qlwb/data/20081201/html/65/content_1.html
Archived: https://archive.is/BOqgO
济南军区总医院 来源:齐鲁晚报 2005年3月21日
"Brief introduction to the liver transplant Center of West China Hospital, Sichuan University"
Original: http://www.cd120.com/htmlylfwganyizhizhongxin/518.jhtml
Archived: https://archive.is/rTETP
"Liver Transplantation Expert Yan Lvnan (CCTV broadcast on 2007.3.26) Source: sina.com.cn"
Original: http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_5dc366b60100c8rl.html
Archived: https://archive.is/7g7e6
肝脏移植专家严律南 (中央电视台《人物》2007.3.26 播出)来源:新浪网
"Completing 5 Liver Transplants in 17 Hours Without Sleep or Rest Chinese Organ Transplantation, Source: Southeast Express March 10, 2014 Author: Shuping Huang"
Original: http://www.chinanews.com/tp/2014/03-03/5903781.shtml
Archived: https://archive.is/DpyDl
17小时不眠不休完成5台肝移植手术 来源:东南快报 2014-03-10 作者:黄淑平
"Chen Jingyu: Ten Years of Tempering Creates a Mythic Story in Transplant Field Source: cn-healthcare.com July 24th, 2014 Author: Liu Yinghui"
Original: http://www.cn-healthcare.com/article/20140724/content-458901-all.html
Archived: http://web.archive.org/web/20160123203459/http://www.cn-healthcare.com/article/20140724/content-458901-all.html
陈静瑜肺腑之言:十年磨砺打造移植界神话 来源:健康界2014-07-24 作者:刘颖慧
"Completing 1 Liver Transplant, 6 Kidney Transplants, and 8 Corneal Transplants in the Same Day Xiangya Hospital of Center-south University. June 3, 2005."
Original: http://www1.renminbao.com/rmb/article_images/2006-5-30-changsha06.jpg
同一天完成1台肝移植6台肾移植8台角膜移植 中南大学湘雅医院 2005-6-3
"This Hospital Completed 7 Heart, Liver, and Kidney Transplants in One Day Xiangya Hospital of Center-south University. September 3, 2005."
Original: http://www1.renminbao.com/rmb/article_images/2006-5-30-changsha05.jpg
我院一天完成7台换心肝肾手术 中南大学湘雅医院 2005-9-3
"Our Hospital Created a new record again for transplant operation Xiangya Hospital of Center-south University. May 14, 2006."
Original: http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/cn/images/nationalcriminalreports/250.jpg
Archived: https://archive.is/P31MJ
我院再创器官移植手术新纪录 中南大学湘雅医院 2006-5-14
"Investigative leads: The Most Kidney Transplant Surgeries Were up to 21 Operations in one day in Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Source: minghui.org"
Original: http://www.clearwisdom.net/emh/articles/2006/7/29/76109.html
Archived: http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/7/14/132998.html#2006-7-13-xs-1
调查线索:北京朝阳医院肾移植手术最多一天达21台 明慧网14/07/2006
"Kidney Transplants in One Day at Second People’s Hospital of Shanxi Province on August 15 (2006)"
Original: http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/9/11/137584.html
Archived: https://archive.is/8zrPi
山西省第二人民医院8月15日一天做肾移植11例 来源:明慧网
"WHO Officials Claim Organ Transplants in China Becoming Transparent China News Service, Aug 20, 2015 www.hb.chinanews.com/news/2015/0820/222847.html"
Original: https://archive.is/8OlTf
《中新网》 世卫官员称中国器官移植变得阳光透明 Aug 20, 2015 - 中新社
"Tianjin First Central Hospital renovation project Source: China Construction Transformation Network October 21, 2009"
Original: http://www.chinabrn.cn/material_detail.aspx?id=358
Archived: https://archive.is/yAz3W
天津市第一中心医院改造项目 来源: 中国建筑改造网 2009-10-21
"Tianjin First Center Hospital Source: enorth.com.cn June 25th , 2014"
Original: http://news.enorth.com.cn/system/2014/06/25/011973313.shtml
Archived: https://archive.is/H1D8F
天津市第一中心医院 来源:北方网 2014-06-25
"Pioneer first: Shen Zhongyang promote voluntary organ donation legislation Source: China Science and Technology Daily, dated: December 10th , 2014"
Original: http://digitalpaper.stdaily.com/http_www.kjrb.com/kjrb/html/2014-12/10/content_286091.htm?div=-1
Archived: https://archive.is/CEEQ9
先驱先行:沈中阳推动自愿捐献器官立法 来源:科技日报 2014-12-10
"Shen Zhongyang – Baidu Encyclopedia"
Original: http://baike.baidu.com/view/1577731.htm
Archived: https://archive.is/gXqoe
"Bring the hope of life by transplant tast.org.cn 1/5/2015"
Original: http://www.tast.org.cn/2015/1-5/15151628325.html
Archived: http://web.archive.org/web/20150329030610/http://www.tast.org.cn/2015/1-5/15151628325.html
用移植带来生命的希望 天津市科学技术协会 1/5/2015
"Shen Zhongyang: Hope of Transplants, Strengthening Life Source: Guangming Daily. January 27, 2011 Page 13."
Original: http://epaper.gmw.cn/gmrb/html/2011-01/27/nw.D110000gmrb_20110127_1-13.htm
Archived: https://web.archive.org/web/20160513050439/http://epaper.gmw.cn/gmrb/html/2011-1/27/nw.D110000gmrb_20110127_1-13.htm
沈中阳:移植希望,让生命坚强 来源: 光明日报 2011年01月27日 13 版
"Investigation on tens of thousands of foreigners going to China for organ transplants, China has become the world’s organ transplant Center Source: Phoenix Weekly Feb 22nd, 2006 Author: Chen Yanhui"
Original: http://web.archive.org/web/20100611090330/
Archived: http://news.ifeng.com/phoenixtv/83932384042418176/20060222/751049.shtml
数万外国人赴华移植器官调查 大陆成全球器官移植新兴中心 来源:《凤凰周刊》 2006-02-22 谌彦辉
"Entering the Well-Known Specialty Center of the People’s Liberation Army: The Organ Transplantation Center of the No. 309 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army Xinhua Military Source: XinhuaNet February 28th, 2012"
Original: http://news.xinhuanet.com/mil/2012-02/28/c_122763047.htm
Archived: https://archive.is/wLAPm
独家专访309医院器官移植中心主任石炳毅:器官移植应不断创新 来源:新华网 2012年02月28日
"Brief Introduction of the Second Affiliated Hospital to General Hospital (No. 309 Hospital) of the People’s Liberation Army Source: Good Doctors Online May 7th, 2008"
Original: http://309ent.haodf.com/zhuanjiaguandian/309ent_5317.htm
Archived: https://archive.is/NvKbX
解放军总医院第二附属医院(原309医院)简介 来源:好大夫在线 2008-05-07
"Tan Jianming’s Advanced Accomplishments people.com.cn / www.doctorpda.cn June 4th, 2014"
Original: http://health.people.com.cn/n/2014/0604/c385611-25104541.html
Archived: https://archive.is/kfG6Q
谭建明先进事迹 来源:人民网 / www.doctorpda.cn 2014年06月04日
"Zhu Youhua of Changzheng Hospital, a fighter against kidney diseases Source: Wen Hui Po Sept. 11th, 2010, by Ren Quan and Dong Yuqing"
Original: http://www.shenyounet.com/?action-viewnews-itemid-3838
Archived: https://web.archive.org/web/20160125011436/http://www.shenyounet.com/?action-viewnews-itemid-3838
长征医院朱有华:修行艺术的肾斗士 来源:文汇报 2010年9月11日 作者:任荃 董悦青
"Medical Expert FuYaowen, Source: Jilin Jilin Celebrity Online"
Original: http://mr699.cn/html/13413.html
Archived: https://archive.is/v3Xxl
医学专家傅耀文 来源:吉林名人网
"The Progress of Clinical Renal Homotransplantation in ChinaMedical Journal of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces, June 2004, 15 (6) , Author: Yu Lixin"
Original: http://qikan.9med.net/upload/pdf/160/1653/98377_3634.pdf
Archived: https://web.archive.org/web/20160131013506/http://qikan.9med.net/upload/pdf/160/1653/98377_3634.pdf
我国临床同种肾脏移植进展 《武警医学》杂志2004年6月15卷6期 第一军医大南方医院器官移植中心 于立新
"Investigation Leads: The new “organ transplanting policy” is for covering the continuous crime"
Original: http://www.minghui.org/mh/article_images/2007-9-12-image001.jpg
Archived: http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2007/9/17/162387.html
"Specialist list of Hua Xin Hospital First Hospital of Tsinghua University"
Original: http://health.sohu.com/20050803/n240219253.shtml
Archived: https://archive.is/yx3SU
"Brief Introduction to the Organ Transplant Department of the Guangdong Second People’s Hospital"
Original: http://www.gd2h.com/ks/0040/
Archived: http://web.archive.org/web/20160124015650/http://www.gd2h.com/ks/0040/
"Investigation Leads: Guangdong Second People’s hospital carried out six kidney transplant on August 4th, 2006"
Original: http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2013/9/30/-279442.html
"Introduction to the Hepatobiliary Surgery Department of the People Liberation Army Navy General Hospital Source: Navy General Hospital Hepatobiliary Surgery Department, 2002-2012"
Original: http://www.hjganai.com/zttj/ganyizhi/185.html
Archived: https://web.archive.org/web/20150309062549/http://www.hjganai.com/zttj/ganyizhi/185.html